The genetic heritage of men living on the Iberian Peninsula was largely reduced 4500 years ago – all Y chromosomes, transferred from men to men, were replaced as which broke new farming cultures into the region and drove them out of the gene pool. That is one of the significant conclusions of the largest analysis of ancient DNA from the Iberian Peninsula. The results suggest that there have been enormous changes in Iberia's ancestry far from being a remote European cul-de-sac, as waves of hunter-collectors, farmers, Roman, and others who were mixed with the local population during thousands. year.
“It is unusual to get so many genetic data from so many people in time and space,” says work – deep diving into the genomics of about 300 people who lived in Iberia from 13,000 to 500 years from said, ”says the evolutionary biologist Jaume Bertranpetit Busquets at Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, Spain. “The most detailed and long-term genetic documentation in one region, Iberia, from prehistory to early history,” is presented by archaeologist Kristian Kristiansen from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. Neither was involved in the new research.
Iberia modern people first settled about 44,000 years ago. But little is known about how these pioneers contributed to later populations – the oldest DNA comes from debt collectors dating back to 19,000 years in northern Spain. These early hunter-gatherers came in two distinct groups settled in the north and south of Spain and were closely associated with collector-hunters in Poland and Italy, respectively, by ancient DNA from 11 hunter-collectors and t an early farmer who lived in Iberia from 13,000 to 6000 years ago. Later, the DNA, slowly mixing with new farmers from Anatolia, currently in Turkey, shows researchers led by geneticist Wolfgang Haak at the Max Planck Institute of Human Science in Jena, Germany, who reported today [in Current Biology .
A younger DNA, from two skeletons between 3600 and 4500 years ago, reveals another feature in the Iberian mix. The other was the head of North Africa and the other had a grandparent of North African seniority, according to a study today of Science by Iñigo Olalde, a postdoc in David Reich's genetics laboratory in Harvard Medical School in Boston, and
Then came the central Europeans who were descendants of pollution from Eastern European and Russian grasslands in Iberia, beginning in the early Bronze Age 4500 years ago. They probably brought in early Indo-European language (the large family with over 400 languages spoken in Europe and Asia today), according to Olalde. Firstly, European farmers lived alongside the farmers already in Spain, based on ancient DNA from men who were sent simultaneously in the same places. But within a few centuries, almost all Y chromosomes from Iber farmers – and the DNA of the European central farmers – were replaced.
This meant that the new migrants replaced Spain and Portugal instead of 40% of their genetic heritage in some way. . “It is a mistake to conclude that Iberian men have been killed or violently displaced,” says Olalde, “because the archaeological record does not provide any clear evidence of the suffering of violence in this period.” much more by the steppe migrants than the small population of local farmers, at the end of their DNA, Reich eventually.
Still more immigrants arrived in historical times: the first Roman and then the North African Muslim. At one point 500 years ago, more people of North African ancestry lived in Spain than today, before Christian kingdoms of the Muslim states pushed south and eventually expelled them. But the DNA recommends that Muslim invaders and earlier migrants did not land in a remote Basque country in the far north; The Basque people, who have long had loneliness, are one of the small groups in Europe who have retained their own non-European language even after coming and mixing with Central European farmers
“There is a country Basque place very difficult to overcome; quotations from the French rulers of the Middle Ages say that this is a bad place to join, ”says the population geneticist Mattias Jakobsson, at Uppsala University in Sweden, not part of either team. As a result, “The people of the Iron Age from Iberia seem to be the current Basques,” says Olalde himself, Basque.