Are people fit for space? Herculean pla Gemini Study says 'B & B' may not
Then you made a perverse into the Chibis, Russian for “coil, coil”, a pair of hard-corrugated rubber pants that can seal waist. The pants draw: A vacuum plays how gravity on the Earth draws blood, mucus, the water in cells, and cerebral fluids and lymph fluids from our stones to the bottom of the body.
In space, fluids will not drain, and red astronauts develop, puffy faces and complains about congestion pressure or pressure in their ears. There are also worse effects: 40 percent of astronauts living on the International Space Station suffered some damage to their eyes, including fiber optic edema, round balancing, and woven in the chorus, the layer blood-filled between the retina and the white sclera. NASA gives intraranial pressure a possible explanation of what he calls a “neuro-ocular syndrome associated with space-space,” and he thought the test to measure fluid with the heads and eyes of astronauts.
The wearing of the coil is quite uncomfortable. . Once, Russian cosmic lost awareness when his heart rate fell. His team thought he had a heart attack. Another time, the crusher working with the controls reduced too much pressure ̵
1; putting up the lucky – and the astronaut felt “because I might get my steak out in the most unpleasant way possible.”  Photo of Jason Pontin
But if nothing goes bad heart, you stay into the outfit for a few hours, taking more ultrasound images. You check your blood pressure. You measure cochla fluid with an instrument in your ear and you record intraocular pressure through a pressure sensor to crush against your anesthetic eye swaps. You scan your eye swaps with laser to visualize choroidal and nerve optic folds.
Astronaut Scott Kelly carried out the “Fluids Shifts” experiment when he lived on ISS from March 27, 2015, until March 1, 2016, the longest space area of an American. At the same time, his brother Mark, who was an astronaut, tried to test his intrinsic pressure on the Earth.
More than 25 months, the brothers put in place a parallel routine of cognitive and physical tests – including a spinal tap for Scott – the lab before, during, and after the mission. Overall, 317 samples of stool, urine, and blood from both twins were collected and analyzed for their epigenomic, metabolic, trans-transplant, proteomic and microbiological changes. This was the first thing that NASA did, which never did a modern biological analysis of an astronaut, let alone astronaut and mono-clock control.
The idea behind the study has a simple logic: Because the twins have the same thing. comparing the changes that took place in space and the other on Earth, it would give a new insight into the impact that long-term space light would have on human health.
The results, their results finally published in Science today, we expand our understanding of what happens to the human body after years in space. “The NASA Coupling Study: Multi-Person Analysis of Space Person-Year Lighting” is a winner of cross-disciplinary science. Implemented as a “Herculean attempt” by a peer reviewer of the article, it integrates 10 different group work in universities around the country and 82 unique authors
Francine Garnett-Bakelman, lead author The molecular articles and biologist at the University of Virginia said that the “most comprehensive result was possible based on the data available.” But with the necessary question “Are people fit for space?” the study does not give unsatisfactory answers and incomplete. Long-term exposure to space lighting is dangerous; based on what we now know, a trip to Mars is always too risky to think about it.
More than 500 people are flying in space, and some of the physical changes they had during the missions lasted less than a month or as long as six months are well understood. Fluids change the heads of astronauts; the left side grows for their hearts. If they do not function vigorously, they will lose muscle and bone
But only four people lived in space for a year or more, and the physiological effects of long-term space light are unknown. A human mission to Mars could survive for up to three years, and in the laxative waves of a few studies, there are particular concerns about “genetic, immune, and metabolic functions due to exposure to space radiations, restricted diets… and distressed rhythmic rhythms, and weightlessness. "
The United States government intends to return to Moon by 2024. Mars is the next, in a 2033" low-energy launch window ", when the Red Planet inscription is closest to the Earth. . If we hope to address NASA's call for “exploration class missions,” we need to know more.
It is surprising, therefore, that the origins of the twin study were not within NASA Human Research. Scott Kelly suggested the idea. “I was being informed of an event in the media when crew members were announced” for ISS 43 to 36. “They wanted Misha” —Melhel Kornienko, Scott's cosmetics colleague— “and knowing the science program so that we could answer questions about it. At that meeting I said, ‘Hey, if someone asks a question about my brother Mark, do you intend to do genetic study for us? And they said no. But a few weeks later, I had another meeting with these same people, and they reached some university researchers who thought there was some value in the idea. ”
Scott and Mark Kelly were born in Orange, New Jersey, in 1954. These are the only double astronaut in the history of NASA, and they are amazing at no measure. No one who would look at their boys would be marked as future astronauts – but perhaps a pediatric psychologist who focuses on brothers and sisters who are looking for inspiration. In the autobiography of Scott, Endurance he expresses “the harmful risks” he and Mark took as boys (they bought “skins” without any navigational or working radio equipment, and sent them out across the border). the Jersey to shore in all weather and their inevitable consequences in broken bones
Their parents were drinking hard, the father a violent alcoholic. Scott writes, “Sometimes I think if my father was not police officer, he would be a criminal. ”And it's easy to think of something similar to the two brothers: If their parents were not cops, they might have
both of them made bad in school, and more than Mark struggled with Scott, both of which were bored quickly, but both thought an incredible desire to be astronauts, Scott because he fell in Tom Wolfe's love of lively prose. “I wanted to be a naval dependent. I was still without direction, without reducing 18 years of age with terrible grades that they didn't know about airplanes. But The Right Stuff gave me an outline of a life plan. ”
They found a reversion into naval aviation through the ROTC at the Merchants Maritime Academy (Mark) and the University College of New York (Scott). At the college, they discovered that they were very clever engineers – perfect scores in calculus were now easy because they had a goal – and in the Navy they landed carriers and were test pilots. Mark managed to fight during the Gulf War
Both of them were chosen as astronauts in the 1996 class. During their NASA careers, Mark was the pilot or commander of four Space Shuttle missions; Scott piloted two Shuttles and noticed it and spent six months on the ISS before his year in space. After your wife Mark, Arizona Representative Gabby Giffords, who shot in 2011, he flew his last mission and retired from the space agency. Scott is very generous about what his brother asked his twins: “You have to give him a lot of credit. He was not getting any glory about being a person in space. He did it entirely for the sake of science. ”
But the physical demands of the research were not glorious for Scott, either. “There were times – perhaps a week – where I seemed to be a full day to collect samples. You wake up in the morning and collect blood and centrifugate it and place it in the freezer. You then make your first urine collection and keep collecting urine during the day: 24-hour urine collection, which is unhappy because you can't use the space designed for the space. It's foul. And when you are in this bag, you must remove the test tubes from the urine bag and then you have to bar them, scan them, and place them in the freezer. Even the laboratory freezer is a little complicated. Each time you open the door you can not leave it too long: –80 ° Celsius, and you may get a little cold that burns you. That same day, you could make skin samples, feces. ”
Regarding the subject matter of the study, the ISS did not differ from any laboratory or land clinic. In a conversation and in his book, Scott Kelly shows the attractiveness of his sensation of his home in space. The International Space Station is quite hurtful: sharper viewers and electronics. It smells badly, also: because of the gasification of plastics, garbage, and body odor. ( The smell of space himself, Scott tells us – or, instead, things exposed to the vacuum of the space have a unique smell: “a strong burnt metal smell, like the smell of fourth July sparklers, [or]
Impartiality created particular challenges for a human research program, especially for astronaut who was tired, cold and crabby often from too much CO 2 . Collection tools and samples could not be put down, but bound to walls; The experiments had to make progress in default sequences.
When the samples were collected aboard the ISS and on Earth, the work began very little. Hardly Scott's samples were returned to Earth on board Soyuz capsules (Mark used the US Post Office), and the pairs of blood separated into plasma and various types of cells, including the cells that control the system. immune. Hardly consider all the samples, and share the data and analyze among the 10 working groups. It is not surprising that the overall project took over four years to complete.
What was learned? Chris Mason, chief investigator of the Gene Expression Group and professor of physiology and bioscience at Weill Cornell Medicine, described the impact of space travel on Scott genes as “not only wired – it was like fireworks in the sky. “More than 10,000 genes were activated by space light. “To give you a context,” explains Mason, “about 58,000 genes are identified in the human genome, so we were looking at a lot of the body's ability to respond.”
That means, because on punitive withdrawal stresses, year mission and reentry. However, the extensive changes that occurred everywhere in Scott's body, including the length of his telomeres, have placed the caps at the end of a chromosome that protects the integrity of DNA; gene regulation, measured by interaction with the environment and questioning the gene activity; the microbe or bacteria in its stomach; dimensions of a carotid artery; and health of his eyes
Scott's immune system was generally disturbed during his year in space: Many of his cellular immune-related pathways, including the adaptive immune system, were affected by the inherent immune response, and natural killing cells to protect the body from cancer such as leukemia and viruses. (The result confirms a terrible study published in January comparing eight astronauts 'immune systems that ended flash points longer than six months with healthy adults on Earth: Just 90 days in their flights, the astronauts' natural killing cells were 50 per cent). (c) combat cognitive cells.) The cognitive function of Scott was also broken down: He got dumber on the ISS.
The human body is highly adapted, and all these changes were almost transient: Scott returned to normal life within six months of returning to Earth. He was an old man himself, except for normal age differences. But left some of the effects associated with light of space to mark. Scott got a dumber on the ISS, but he stayed dumber, too. The decline in speed and accuracy of his mental health functions continued six months after his mission.
The most surprising was all Scott's cardinal telomeres. Although it was on the ISS, its telomeres stretched weirdly possibly because of what it operated and how much it ate. But within 48 hours since he returned to Earth, his telomeres shortened rapidly in response to landing stresses. While the majority of Scott's TVs eventually changed back to baseline levels, six months after his mission it was far less telomeres and an increasing number of critically short telomeres. This result was alarming: Telomere's loss could increase the risk of cancer astronauts and other old-age diseases.
NASA study authors distinguish between potentially low risks, average or unknown risks, and high gloomy consequences of space light for a year: “Scott's loss of telomere is an unknown risk. “An example of a“ very dynamic combination with potentially low risk ”was Scott's microbes. A number of high risk changes identified by the study, including the space space neuro-ocular syndrome, were confirmed. However, a number of high risk changes have been found, and long term space travel will need to be resolved.
91.3 percent of Scott genes returned with a modified expression expression during the space space returned to a normal field within six months. However, a separate subset of genes: 811 genes did not exceed different types, all of which related to immune function and DNA repair. This is bad news for the person's future in space, as they are the genes that must protect astronauts from space radiation.
The Earth's magnetic fields and atmosphere allow us to absorb most of the ionizing radiation that flows through space. Typical Earthling takes about three Sieverts (mSv) each year. During a Space Shuttle mission lasting a week, maybe a astronaut got 5.59 mSv. The team of Apollo 14 was exposed to 11.4 mSv. Scott Kelly received 146.34 mSv during his year in space. When he closed his eyes to sleep in his night quarters at night, Scott would see “cosmic flashes… light his vision,” as a result of radiation hitting his retinas.
Much of the genomic instability and restoration was recorded. a few studies are likely to result from space radiation. In particularly worrying data, the number of genes expressed differently six times was higher in the six months of Scott's mission
Chris Mason and nobody knew. whether this uncontrolled gene expression would be at a high or scale level as Scott lived for another six months or longer on the ISS. “We know it's not the direction we want,” says Mason. “We see that gene networks are acting to respond to the damage to DNA and the body adapting, but it may not be sufficient in response to overcoming radiation damage.”
This applies to energy because of high loading associated with the killing and malfunctioning of radiation space cells, or the breaking of DNA strands and laying of original pairs. Dead or poorly functioning cells result in heart cells or cognitive deterioration; unless damaged cells can repair DNA, build up mutations that cause cancer and heritable diseases
The ISS is only 250 miles above the Earth, still in the shadow of the Van Allen radiation zone. During Mars's mission, astronaut could absorb as much as 1200 mSv. “The overall risk of cancer for astronauts remains relatively low, but almost everyone has flown closely with Earth,” says Mason. “We don't know yet, but I'd say radiation is a big problem.”
A few NASA studies have clear boundaries. A n = 1: “With one test material in the light space environment for this particular series of measures, it is impossible to express causation to the space light against a coincidental incident.” (More biochemical engineers MIT broke down: “What is a stunt,” he denied. “A was a real rule than a few twins NASA, where one brother lived in an American suburb. the other has been hiding, alarming to an Iraqi prison for a year. ”
Bill Paloski, director of NASA's human research program and final bidder of the study, understands this criticism. “We want to continue to try our flight teams. But I was impressed by how adaptive people are. We didn't find any show, ”he says.
Paloski believes that the study should be considered as a hypothesis generator. Chris Mason, who proposed the first monitoring of the genome and epidemics of astronauts before and during the space space, is willing to adhere to it. A further seven papers are being reviewed by its group, including articles on somatic mutations and single cell dynamics. There are five or six papers to come from other groups.
Mason still has more ambitions. He has proposed a "500-year plan" for space colonization, which is proposing radicals by adding, destroying, or changing genes to create permanent, viable changes in new species of sparked hominins. “The twin study is the most comprehensive molecular map of the human body ever made from space light. This is the first major step on a 500-year staircase, which represents a biomedical roadmap for responding to and risks to long-term space light, which will help astronauts survive the journey to Mars, and will emerge. , “Rocket science doesn't go to Mars. It's about political science. ”This is certainly true: NASA Mars's mission would be a political decision, with political costs and benefits, that it would only be allowed if it had widespread political support. By contrast, it seems that the problems of building a relatively strong spacecraft, choosing its best path, and providing a crew are relatively simple. But a problem with the dumbfounding life sciences would also go to Mars
Today, we don't know what years of exposure to the radiation astronauts could bring them over the Earth's magnetism to the body human. Nor what interventions might prevent or cure the diseases that may result. The next thing is NASA Human Research to work with the same types of academic scientists who provided the twin study to complete its data with further studies on astronauts in the future. while the light of the person is in their children. Scott Kelly retired from NASA and married his long-term partner. Mark is running for the US Senate.
When asked whether was any different, Scott says, “What I feel directly from the flight, I really can't say that. I have these changes on my vision. The radiation I have had affected my DNA. I don't feel any of that, but I know it's there. I'm not really worried about it. I certainly feel things in 20 years, of course. ”
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